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Intercultural Discourse in Domain-Specific English

Monographic Issue of Textus (XVII/1, 2004)

Editors: Christopher Candlin and Maurizio Gotti



This monographic issue focuses on intercultural communication in specialist fields and its realisations in English for specific purposes. Special attention is given to legal, commercial, political and institutional discourse used in particular workplaces, analysed from an intercultural perspective (i.e. in the ethnolinguistic / social sense and / or in the inter-institutional and intra-institutional culture sense).


The contributions explore to what extent intercultural pressure leads to particular discourse patternings and lexico -grammatical / phonological realisations, and also the extent to which textual re-encoding and recontextualisation serve to obscure / emphasize particular locally-relevant aspects of the communication in question (whether in terms of content, discourses and realisations) and thus alter the pragmatic messages of the texts taken into consideration.


Abstracts of the contributions



Information Management in Non-cooperative Talk : A Case Study of Two Political Discussion Programmes, Laurie Anderson ( Università di Siena)


This paper aims to contribute to a greater understanding of the pragmatics of political discourse in conflict situations through an in-depth analysis of selected aspects of reference and meta-reference in two transcripts belonging to a larger corpus of political discussion programmes recorded during the British general elections in 1997. The segments, approximately 30 minutes in length, come from the audience discussion sections of two telecasts of Jonathan Dimbleby ; in this section of the show, the moderator, Jonathan Dimbleby , selects members of the studio audience to pose questions directly to the week’s guest, usually a politician or member of government.

The analysis has highlighted some systematic differences between patterns of reference and meta-reference in the interviews with Donald Dewer and Martin McGuinness . In closing I briefly comment on the utility of these findings for further research on what I have broadly referred to here as “inter-institutional” talk. In the first place, the contrastive analysis of patterns of reference to political figures, entities and events in the two interviews suggests that specific attention should be dedicated to the deployment of “membership categorization devices” (Sacks 1972) and other modes for socially grounding talk; we have seen, in fact, how specific modes of reference serve to locate speakers in a given socio-political perspective.

A second area on which to focus is the comparative analysis of what, following Fox (1987), we have termed ‘subsequent mention’. Our analysis suggests that discourse anaphora may not show the same level of sensitivity to local sequential structure in discussions taking place in highly conflictual and in less heated settings. This finding is of interest in the light of the mixed results about cohesion relations in conversational arguments: while some studies have not found significant differences between the deployment of referential devices in arguments and in more consensual interaction (cf. Shulten 2001 and Honda 2000), other work has documented flouting of Grice’s maxim of Quantity in second-pair-pairs in conflictual settings (see Fox 1987: 62-74; Gruber 2001). Patterns of reference may provide an index of participants’ relative ability and/or willingness to mutually adjust their initial frames of reference, with ‘collaborative conflict’ of the sort occurring in the Dewer interview on one end of the spectrum and ‘non-collaborative conflict’ of the sort documented in the McGuinness ’ interview on the other. In this perspective, patterns of discourse anaphora constitute, to use Gruber’s (2001) terms, ‘ interactional products’ from which analysts and members make infer ‘strategic orientations’ (i.e. intentions) on the part of participants in an interaction.

An analysis of metacommunciation in the two transcripts opens up a final avenue for further investigation. The Dewer and McGuinness interviews diverge radically as concerns the focus of metacommunication – on the one hand, on content and argumentative function, on the other, on the more superficial level of immediate adjacency-pair structure. The difficulties encountered by interactants in the latter case in tracking basic sequential relations in the evolving talk graphically points up the crucial role played by metadiscourse in conferring coherence on conversational discourse; where this function is undermined or lacking, participants are unable to keep their bearings.




Fox, B.A., 1987, Discourse Structure and Anaphora: Written and Conversational English, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge .

Gruber, H., 2001, “Questions and strategic orientation in verbal conflict sequences”, Journal of Pragmatics, 33/12, pp. 1815-57.

Honda, A., 2000, Managing Conflict Talk in Japanese Public Affairs Talk Shows, PhD dissertation, Georgetown University, U.S.A.

Sacks, H., 1972, “On the analyzability of stories by children”, in J.J. Gumperz , D. Hymes (eds.), Directions in Sociolinguistics, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 325-45.

Shulten , U., 2001, Co-operation and Conflict in German Children’s Conversations, PhD dissertation, University of Essex , G.B.







Email TextTalk in Institutional Discourse , Carmen Argondizzo / Anna Franca Plastina (Università della Calabria)


In the subcultural world of emailing, TextTalk in English, as a unique medium of intercultural communication, represents a significant mode ( Halliday 1985) of creating discourse which cuts across the traditional modes of speech and writing. The overall aim of this paper is to explore to what extent subcultural constraints of email language and intercultural features of English affect institutional discourse in non-English speaking academic environments. As university settings increasingly replace the more traditional functions of letters with emailing in institutional communication, examining a corpus of academic emails collected at the University of Calabria ( Italy ) raises some interesting issues worth investigating. By dissecting the main components of TextTalk discourse, the objective of the paper is to: 1. analyse one-to-one emails to explore the feasibility of an institutional discourse pattern of TextTalk to be recontextualized and generalized in academic settings; 2. hypothesize whether academic email relationship, i.e. empathy, springs off a particular subcultural discourse pattern in dyadic communication which emphasizes relevant aspects drawn upon in the analysis and which, therefore, might alter TextTalk patterns. The corpus is made up of 185 academic and administrative e-mail messages which were circulated at inter and intra-institutional level as part of work practices. The corpus analysis is supported by qualitative data (i.e., questionnaires) based on email users’ assumptions and actions concerning TextTalk . Results show that, as most emailers , the informants involved in this small-scale study, rather than being TextTalk native users (Baron 2000), are still locked in the transitional stage of TextTalk , transferring traditional genres to this new genre of communication. Further, the study encourages reflection on the need to reconsider instructional practice in terms of email stylistic skills.




Halliday M.A.K., 1985, An Introduction to Functional Grammar, Edward Arnold, London .

Baron N.S. , 2000, Alphabet to Email, Routledge , London .







Conversation Analysis of Opening sequences of Telephone Calls to Bookstore in English and Italian, Hugo Bowles / Gabriele Pallotti ( Università di Sassari )


The similarities and differences in the ways in which openings on the telephone are organised in different languages and cultures has been extensively studied from the Conversational Analysis (CA) perspective, from the pioneering work by Schegloff (1968, 1986) and Hopper (1992) through to the recent collection of papers edited by Luke and Pavlidou (2002). In line with Schegloff’s recent illustration (2002) of the potential benefits of CA to applied linguists, the present study is an attempt to apply the CA framework to specific purpose interaction in order to see what the practices of conversation can tell us about domain-specificity.

Schlegoff (1986: 185) has shown that English telephone call openings are characterised by similar sets of ‘moves’: summons/answer – identification / recognition – greetings – how are you sequence. The aim of the present study is to use these standard routines in an examination of the practices of talk in workplace settings using 4 corpora – 2 Italian and English NS corpora of calls to a variety of institutions, services and retail outlets, and 2 Italian and English NS corpora of calls made to bookstores – in order to see how the character of the telephone talk might be related to their institutional culture.

Our results show differences between calls in terms of the language used and the type of workplace. As regards language, English calls showed a greater use of dual purpose expressions, a more economical and multi-functional first turn and more identification by English receivers. As regards workplace, calls to bookstores, compared to other workplaces, tended to deal with initial enquiries in more than one turn. English receivers in bookstores also tend to do the greeting more than in other workplaces. It is suggested that these findings may have intercultural implications for calls between English and Italian speakers.




Hopper, R., 1992, Telephone Conversation, Indiana University Press, Bloomington .

Luke K. & Pavlidou T-S., 2002, Telephone Calls, John Benjamins , Amsterdam .

Schegloff E., 1968, “Sequencing in conversational openings”, American Anthropologist, 70, pp. 1075-1095.

Schegloff E., 1986, “The routine as achievement”, Human Studies, 9, pp. 111-151.

Schegloff E., Koshik I. , Jacoby S. & Olsher D., 2002, “Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics”, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22, pp.3-31.






EU Language in Cross-Boundary Communication , Giuditta Caliendo (Università di Napoli)


This paper explores aspects of EU institutional and legal language, with attention given to the linguistic features and lexical productivity resulting from an intercultural dialogue between Member States and European institutions. The language of European legislation can be considered as the instrument of a new European culture, a functional vehicle for supranational communication between Member States, each characterized by a dissimilar culture and legal system. The study highlights the linguistic features of Eurolanguage : neutralized and deprived of any local affiliation, it is constantly enriched by different national influences and can be considered as an LSP for Eurocrats working jointly in numerous fields. Particular consideration is given to the analysis of neologisms derived from Community debates, policy and legislation, with specific reference to those new terms that have permeated the Italian language through the direct influence of domestic politics and the media. Eurolanguage draws its lexical origins from national languages and, through different productive mechanisms, creates its own independent terminology to express a number of political and legislative measures through a process of constant evolution.

The source corpus covers a time-span of twelve years, and consists of data drawn from legislation of the European Union published in the Official Journal from 1990 to 2002, available in all the language versions in Eur-Lex , July 18, 2003, the electronic archive of the EU (http://www.europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/search/index.html). The analysis carried out in this paper shows that the intercultural added value of Eurolanguage is intrinsically related to its function of guaranteeing communication and harmonization at an interinstitutional and supernational level. Investigations into the nature of EU language is expected to lead to a wider understanding of its representative cultural value and to its increasing weight in giving a single voice to a multifaceted and ever-larger Union, despite social, cultural and judicial variation in national frameworks.







Investigating 'Virtual' Virtues : A Comparative Study of Charity Websites, Sandra Campagna ( Università di Torino )


Investigation of the effects of the internationalization process supported by English as a global lingua franca focuses here on virtual texts produced by nonprofit -making organizations, i.e. social and economic actors naturally keen on interculturality . The long-term purpose of this study is to construct and analyze a corpus of multimodal electronic texts issued by nonprofit -making organizations, highlighting the relevant features which promote their international ‘image’. The purpose of the paper is to verify if and to what extent the international version in English mirrors the culture-specific features of the Italian version or rather reflects a tendency to alter somehow the culture-specific elements by moulding the information according to Anglocentric organizational modes – a hypothesis already advanced, especially with regard to domain-specific English in culturally and linguistically differentiated academic contexts.

The paper first supplies the theoretical grounding relevant to the hypothesis of pervasive Anglo-American models detectable in virtual texts. Then, it provides an overall view of the nonprofit -making sector with specific reference to the Italian scenario and its latest developments. A brief description of the selected charity websites and of the criteria adopted for selection follows. Cross-comparison of local and international charities’ websites are carried out to provide evidence of Anglocentric constraints and instances of cultural specificity in the process of image promotion on line. The analysis highlights specific lexicogrammatical features signalling the informative/descriptive function and the exhortative/persuasive function as constitutive markers of the charity transaction on line.







Virtual Diplomacy : A Case Study of Conversational Practices in an Intercultural Setting, Michelangelo Conoscenti ( Università di Torino ).


This paper reports on a simulation experiment involving a Special Interest Group set up to observe and describe the amount and quality of daily online communication produced by participants within a virtual diplomacy (VD) framework. The study aims to analyse text-based communication spontaneously produced in an intercultural setting in order to assess intra-group processes, particularly mutual normative influences. Features such as length of contributions, languages used, types of introduction, topic introduction and shift, ‘ Netspeak features’ and communication management are examined both manually and electronically in the light of two main theories – namely the Reduced Social Cues (RSC) theory and the Social Identity De-Individualization Effects (SIDE) theory – and their implications for intercultural communication discourse. In VD the exchange of information between unacquainted people can easily bring a risk of fragmentation into the communicative process. Nonetheless, the crucial issue of language use in cyber diplomacy seems to be currently neglected in the literature, foreshadowing a form of linguistic and discursive imperialism – the massive Anglo-American dominance in Internet-based environments already lamented by several researchers. As a result, communicative practices are likely to arise that privilege countries already equipped with advanced technologies of communication and information – countries, that is, with greater political, economic and linguistic power.

To assess these risks and to analyze these developing forms of online discourse the paper proposes a framework relying on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work theory, concurrently with conversational analysis and discursive psychology. The paper posits the following research questions to investigate intra-group processes: 1) Is it possible that someone, or some cultural group, will prevail in the activity, and if yes, why? 2) What are the differences between the interactions generated in text-exchanges and in face-to-face conversations? 3) Are the participants’ communicative behaviors better framed within a RSC model or a SIDE model? 4) How will participants build up their identities in a VD environment?







Cross-cultural Miscommunication in Welfare Officers' Interrogations , Maria Grazia Guido (Università di Lecce)


This paper presents a descriptive case study regarding institutional interrogations of West-African illegal immigrants, which were carried out by Italian welfare officers using English as a domain-specific ‘lingua franca’. The study analyzes journey reports of three Nigerian asylum seekers (two men speaking Nigerian Pidgin English and a woman speaking ' Engligbo ', a hybrid variety of English and native Igbo). The three asylum seekers, held in custody at a reception camp near Lecce ( South Italy ), were suspected of withholding information about the identities of the smugglers who helped them cross the borders. Welfare officers were thus required to complement previous police interrogations that had been considered unsatisfactory. Starting from the two cognitive-grammar notions of ' ergativity ' and ' accusativity ', which differently frame the structure of event reports in typologically different languages, the analysis focuses on:


(a) The recurrent transfer into the refugees’ English reports of native ‘ergative’ structures of events (in which an agent in grammatical-subject position is substituted by its logical object);

(b) The systematic misinterpretation of such reports by welfare officers, who considered them as deliberate attempts to shift responsibility away from the agents (the smugglers) who had made their illegal journey possible.


The hypothesis was that the assessment of cooperation by the Italian welfare officers (accustomed to their native ‘accusative’ structures) was biased against the different linguistic structures used by Africans. The paper focuses first on the protocol analysis of salient parts from these interviews, investigated – throughout their turn-taking exchanges and adjacency-pair structure – in terms of ergative/non-ergative processes, and in relation to conversational moves. Then, it reports on a control study where other subjects were employed to corroborate the protocol findings.







Intercultural features of English to Sign Language Conference Interpretation: A Preliminary Study for Multimodal Corpus Analysis, Cynthia Jane Kellet Bidoli ( Università di Trieste)


Despite the exponential increase in the internationalisation of verbal communication since the second world war and a marked advance in the exposure of Italians to the English language, it is assumed from the author’s experience working on deaf issues that the deaf signing community in Italy almost exclusively depends on oral/written Italian for intercultural communication with the English-speaking world or occasionally, direct interpretation from English to Italian Sign Language (LIS), which is generally an L3 to L2 combination (as LIS is rarely an L1 for sign-language interpreters). Alternatively and more commonly, two interpreters are involved in a complex filtering mechanism, firstly from English to Italian and then from Italian into LIS. In order to analyse more closely the linguistic and intercultural mechanisms at play during this complex three-tier translation process from the oral/aural channel to the visual/ gestural , a survey was conducted which identified situational contexts and broad disciplines with which the LIS interpreter might be confronted. This paper outlines preliminary investigation in one such area of intercultural communication, which emerged from the survey: conference presentations on sign language itself, delivered by English-speaking experts. A small corpus of video-recorded proceedings and accompanying signed interpretation was selected for multimodal analysis, to identify, in the next stage of this research, the linguistic and intercultural features of this mediation process and investigate any textual recasting that may occur. It is envisaged that the results in the present study will be predominantly concerned with omissions and semantic errors leading to intercultural communicative failure or distortion. The focus on the lecturing and conferencing genres encountered by the signing deaf community in Italy, is expected to deepen understanding of the interpreting strategies required to mediate across this particular linguistic combination and, through the detailed electronic analysis of corpus data, accordingly design teaching aids and methodologies to improve courses in the training of interpreters.







"...to meet our common challenge" : ENGAGEMENT strategies of alignment and alienation in current US international discourse, Donna R. Miller ( Università di Bologna)


The paper engages the challenge of delineating strategies of addresser-addressee alignment and alienation ( Candlin 2002: 31) with specific reference to the post-9/11/01 global crisis context which, it is argued, can be seen to be in evidence in the specific document that is closely examined: US President George W. Bush’s speech to the UN on September 12, 2002 – a persuasive plea to the global community to support US policy vis-à-vis Saddam Hussein’s Iraq. It is posited that such strategies serve to negotiate an inherent fundamental conflict between the US-as-speaker ’s discursive position and that of the international community. The primary focus of the paper can thus be said to be, to once again borrow Candlin’s , but also Bakhtin’s (1986), terms, ‘ alterity management’, in a synchronic and diachronic intertextual (Lemke 1995) perspective.

In particular, the paper makes use of the still ongoing modelling within Systemic Functional Linguistics of a framework for analysing speaker evaluation in texts: Appraisal Systems (Martin 2000), with special focus on the Engagement System (e.g. White 2003), which is concerned with how intersubjective relations of alignment and dis -alignment are linguistically construed, negotiated and rhetorically functional. Working from system to instance, the resources realizing monologic and dialogic positioning are explored, in an attempt to account for how relations of status, power and solidarity are textually enacted by means of patterns of lexicogrammatical choices.

Analysis reveals how the Engagement resources at work in Bush’s text, despite extensive tactical use of consensus-presuming strategies, can ultimately be seen to construe an alterity -rejecting position. It is proposed that the findings also illustrate the diachronically-rooted, self-sufficient ‘chosen-nation’ rhetoric (Longley 2002; Miller in press) which is currently enacting the struggle for US hegemony of meaning-making practices in the extant anti-terrorist world order – a rhetorically enacted Gramscian ‘war of positions’ ( Gramsci 1971; Anderson 1977) that it is an essential aim of this paper to explore.




Anderson P., 1977, ‘The Antinomies of Antonio Gramsci ”, New Left Review, 100, pp. 5-80.

Bakhtin M.M., 1986, in C. Emerson and M. Holquist (eds.), Speech Genres and Other Late Essays, trans. V.W. McGee, University of Texas Press, Austin.

Candlin C.N., 2002, ‘ Alterity , Perspective and Mutuality in LSP Research and Practice’, in M. Gotti , D. Heller and M. Dossena (eds.), Conflict and Negotiation in Specialized Texts, Peter Lang, Bern , pp. 21-40.

Gramsci A., 1971, Hoare Q., and G. Smith, (trans. and eds.), Selections from the prison notebooks of Antonio Gramsci , International Publishers, New York .

Lemke J.L., 1995, ‘ Intertextuality and Text Semantics’, in P. Fries and M. Gregory (eds.), Discourse in Society: Systemic Functional Perspectives, Ablex , Norwood NJ , chap. 5.

Longley C., 2002, Chosen People: The Big Idea that Shaped England and America , Hodder and Stoughton : London .

Martin J.R., 2000, ‘Beyond Rxchange : Appraisal Systems in English”, in S. Hunston and G. Thompson (eds.), Evaluation in Text, OUP, Oxford., pp.142-175.

Miller D.R., in press, ‘Packaging the Presidency: Electoral Texts in the Cultural Context of the American Dream’, in N. Vasta (ed.), Forms of Promotion: Texts, Contexts and Cultures, Pàtron , Bologna .

White P.R.R., 2003, ‘Beyond Modality and Hedging: A Dialogic View of the Language of Intersubjective Stance’, Text [special issue on Appraisal], 23/2, pp. 259-284.







English-language-difficult // Question-you-think-what? , Elena Ochse ( Univerità del Piemonte Orientale )


Teaching/learning a foreign language is clearly an intercultural activity, involving a reciprocal cultural exchange between teachers and learners. If, as in the case of deaf students in Italy , the learners' mother tongue is LIS (Italian Sign Language), the language-learning activity becomes doubly intercultural. Signers are seen as belonging to a bilingual minority because they communicate with each other in the Sign Language of their country or area, but resort to their national majority language for reading and writing.

This paper illustrates a number of conversational strategies found in LIS, such as turn-taking, interruption, attention-seeking, minimal responses and metalanguage . Transcriptions of video-recorded instances of a classroom setting with deaf Italian LIS-users and an English-speaking EFL teacher, assisted by an interpreter, are analysed from the intercultural and linguistic points of view. Results concern comprehension, language interference and leakage and have been analyzed within the framework of the ethnography of communication.







Education in Istitutional Discourse : Language and Culture in the USA and the EU, Rita Salvi ( Università ' La Sapienza ', Rome )


Written legal rules concerning education in the USA and in the EU reflect cultural and linguistic values that could be detected through sensitivity to the intercultural dimensions of language and careful linguistic analysis. The pragmatic constraints on a legal rule, which involve the giver of the law, the subject of the law and the competent interpreter of the law, have not changed in time nor do they differ from culture to culture in spite of important differences in various legal systems. It is therefore no surprise that in the body of institutional discourse concerning education in the USA and the EU taken into consideration in this paper the formal aspects of the language used in both the USA and the EU documents are very similar. From the linguistic analysis of these sources, significant cultural differences have emerged that throw some light on the different ways in which these legal systems have approached the issue of regulating the right to education. Though the particular issues affecting legislation in the field of education in the USA and in the EU may at times be surprising, it is no wonder that places that have had such divergent histories have consequently developed and supported different national values at different moments in time. These are the factors concealed by the striking similarity of the linguistic form of both the USA and the EU documents. This wealth of diversity in culture and legislative intention could easily be overlooked in the absence of careful linguistic analysis of the texts concerned. However, what both the USA and the EU legal systems have in common concerning regulation in the field of education is a factor that they share with all legal systems and nearly all attempts at legislation, that is, the law follows the facts. Legislators on both sides of the Atlantic have had to struggle with the task of translating into language their intentions concerning an existing social phenomenon, in our particular case the right of citizens to education. This has not been an easy task as can be observed from the analysis of the legal texts produced by the USA and EU legislators who aim at guaranteeing this right to their citizens.







Language and Meaning in European Discourse of Human Rights , Girolamo Tessuto (Seconda Università di Napoli)


This paper deals with discourse as found in the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Charter of Fundamental Rights. Based on a intra-institutional, socio-cultural, legal sense research analysis, the paper will explore linguistic realisations emerging in this type of discourse seen as Communication for Specific Purposes. The corpus comprises updated authentic texts available on the internet as well as relevant case law materials. The materials examine the way language communicates meaning and leads to particular lexical realisations in European human rights discourse. Three approaches to the analysis of lexis are taken. Firstly, investigating the level of speciality and stylistic range underlying texts for international use. Secondly, examining how generic meanings acquire specificity outside their ordinary or accepted technical usage in the relevant domain; the reasons for specificity and peculiarities are sought in the intra-institutional role of the Strasbourg Court . Thirdly, examining how generic language features are reflected in the lexico -grammatical patterning applied to translation for international purposes. The analysis of the materials reveals that a preference is given to plain, standardised language usage underlying the nature and purpose of international texts. No exception is made of vague language inevitably occurring. The intra-institutional pressure by the Court seems to control the acceptance and applicability of the meaning of concepts by a variety of approaches, i.e. textuality and teleological principles, autonomous meaning, the latter appearing to recontextualise meanings outside their common or accepted technical usage. The reasons for this are to be traced in the mandate for a dynamic jurisprudence to accommodate various instances deriving from cultural diversity in Europe . This is also reflected in the lexico -grammatical realisations applied to the translation process in which the search for European common discourse in human rights goes hand in hand with linguistic consistency in the multilingual corpus.







Pragmatic and Cross- culural Considerations in Translating Verbal Constructions in Prescriptive Legal Texts in English and Italian, Christopher Williams ( Università di Bari )


In this paper the author examines the finite verbal constructions used in prescriptive legal texts in English and Italian on the basis of two small corpora of parallel texts. The results confirm the preponderance of one specific verbal form in each language, namely the shall construction in English, and the present indicative in Italian. Taking into consideration the works of theorists such as Bhatia, Šarčević and Garzone , the author goes on to frame the issue in terms of tense, aspect and modality, arguing that although the basic function of each of the two verbal forms is essentially the same, there is not complete equivalence of meaning, also because of the other functions – or lack of functions – carried out by each particular verbal construction within the language in question. The author also attempts to reduce the confusion (see, for example, Foley) surrounding the exact meaning of the shall construction in prescriptive legal English by asserting that it expresses ‘authoritativeness’, while any further attempt to pin its meaning down, e.g. in terms of obligation, is doomed to fail. It is also suggested that the label of ‘normative indicative’ – usually associated with the present indicative in prescriptive legal discourse in languages such as Italian or French – be applied equally to English in those cases where the present indicative is used in main clauses.




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Bhatia V., 1998. “ Intertextuality in Legal Discourse’, The Language Teacher, 22/11, 13-39.

Foley R., 2001. “Going out in Style? Shall in EU Legal English”, Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics Conference 2001, University of Lancaster , 185-195.

Garzone G., 1999. “The Translation of Legal Texts: A Functional Approach in a Pragmatic Perspective’, Textus 12: 391-408.

Garzone G., 2000. “Legal Translation and Functionalist Approaches: A Contradition in Terms?' in Actes du Colloque International 'La Traduction juridique . Histoire, théorie(s) et pratique, 1-19.2.2002. Ecole de Traduction et d' Interpretation , Université de Genève, Geneva , 395-414.

Garzone G., 2001. “ Deontic Modality and Performativity in English Legal Texts”, in M. Gotti & M. Dossena (eds.) Modality in Specialized Texts, Peter Lang, Bern , 153-173.

Šarčević S., 1997/2000. New Approach to Legal Translation. Kluwer Law International, The Hague .